Subsurface Data Analysis, Geomodeling and Geostatistics

  David Garner, TerraMod Consulting
Date:   May 27 - May 30, 2019
           8:30AM to 3:00PM
Location:         CSPG Classroom
150 -540-5 ave SW,Calgary AB T2P 0M2
CPD Credit:   26

Registration for this course has closed

Who Should Attend
Technical and decision makers working on subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs in multi-disciplinary teams using or considering using geomodeling. This includes geomodelers, technicians, geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, technical managers, and new hires.

Learning outcomes
To provide grounding in subsurface data analysis, geomodeling and geostatistical thought process. Improved understanding of best practices, tools of the trade and important workflows. An introductory overview of necessary basic geostatistical theory for data analysis and subject knowledge to improve team communication. Improved understanding of the uses and limitations of geostatistics and geomodeling. 
Course Overview
Geostatistics is the mathematical engine of spatial data analysis and geomodeling. Dominant uses of geostatistics in the industry are multi-variate data analysis, mapping, integrating diverse variables, building geomodels, resource evaluation and decisions. Solid grounding in Geostatistics is an essential qualification of a proficient Geomodeler, data scientist and problem solver within subsurface teams. Deterministic and stochastic methods are combined. Uncertainty is a fundamental topic because many underlying applications are stochastic and data provide a sparse or imprecise sampling of reservoirs. Geostatistical basic theory and best practices are explained along with a variety of practical tips. Uses of probabilistic results are discussed. Context for the subsurface team is given through workflow element descriptions and case studies. The course provides grounding in theory and thought process.

Afternoon exercises are designed to reinforce the theory and lecture through hands-on learning. The advanced exercises are scripted to allow flexibility to experience the impact of key parameter choices on model outcomes without getting bogged down in the software during a short course. The Isatis Geostatistics toolkit is used for exercises since it is a flexible software where basic techniques are transferable.

Module 1 (computer exercises)
Introduction: Geomodeling and the Subsurface Team -What is Geostatistics? 

Essential statistics and terminology
Purpose: Background for exploratory data analysis, preparing for mapping and model building
Regionalized Variables: Data Types, definitions
Univariate Statistics: Measures of position, spread, and shape; proportions, stationarity, proportional effect
Box plots, Q-Q plots
Bivariate Statistics: Covariance and correlation
Quantifying Variability/Spatial Continuity: Variograms- experimental, anisotropy; hand calculations; variogram maps; Behaviour, impact of outliers and calculation tips
Variogram Models: illustrations; nested, issues, fitting tips and tricks

Module 2 (computer exercises)
Geostatistical Estimation

General estimation techniques 
Kriging: simple and ordinary; Kriging by hand with a variogram model; Kriging weights, Cross validation, stationarity
Multi-variate: Co-Kriging; collocated co-Kriging; Kriging with External Drift (universal Kriging)
Trends in data: handling non-stationarity
Case examples with mapping
Geostatistical Depth conversion and QC, brief introduction, e.g., for model framework
Multi-variate Special: Principal Components analysis; seismic attributes; statistical plays

Module 3 (computer exercises)

Simulation versus Estimation concepts 
Conditional Simulation; random walk and search neighbourhood
Sequential Gaussian Simulation processes
Petrophysical Trends and secondary data 
Uses of models: probability mapping and uncertainty; risked volumetrics; avoiding bias in estimates
Post-processing special topic: Checking results, direct forecasting without simulation
Case History 

Module 4 (computer exercises)
Facies Simulations

Stochastic Methods summary 
Stratigraphic coordinate systems
Deterministic facies trend modeling as a model constraint
Object methods-summary
Pixel methods: Illustrated description of algorithms for Truncated Gaussian (TGS), Truncated Pluri-Gaussian (PGS), Sequential Indicator (SIS), Multiple Point (MPS)
Facies method characteristics and choices

Module 5 & 6 (Lecture)
Generalized Subsurface Workflows and Workflow Elements

Case Histories
Compiling and checking the input databases, data types, model planning
Defining the structure and stratigraphic framework; faults, grids and model sizing
Facies inputs: Diverse Sources; Visual versus Electrofacies classification; Issues, scale, preparation for modeling success
Facies trend modeling: proper techniques and choices for building 1D, 2D and 3D proportions; integration of seismic attributes
Topics on Petrophysical modeling of porous media and fluids: Porosity, water saturation methods, permeability, mechanical; scale and specific rules, oil in place
Re-scaling for the simulator techniques, specific parameter choices and issues
Post-processing: net pay, connectivity, summarizing uncertainty
Linking static to dynamic behavior through direct forecasting (proxies and type curves) in resource plays, delineation, and developments

Exercises: Several on main topics with an integrated probabilistic volumetric study. Exercises are intended to reinforce concepts and practical application. It is possible to discuss attendee data on limited basis during or after the course time.

Prerequisites:  None, but general practical experience with integrated subsurface teams planning to use or using geomodeling would be helpful. Openness to seeing basic mathematical theory which is shown in places. Concepts are explained and illustrated. 


David Garner has more than 30 years of technical experience in industry with 24 years in applied geostatistical studies in petroleum and mining. He has published and presented over 25 papers, many of which were peer-reviewed. Currently, he is a consulting geomodeling advisor and trainer and an associate of Geovariances in Fontainebleau, France. Previously Mr. Garner held positions in Halliburton as a Chief Scientist in R&D, as a Specialist in Statoil’s Heavy Oil Technology Centre-Unconventionals R&D, as Senior Advisor Geologic Modeling for Chevron Canada Resources, and Reservoir Characterization Specialist at ConocoPhillips Canada. He was president of TerraMod Consulting for 6 years applying geostatistics and geomodeling techniques mainly for large international reservoir studies and mining resources. As a volunteer, Mr. Garner currently serves as a co-chair for the CSPG Geomodeling Technical Division committee and was chairman for the Gussow conference, Closing the Gap III Advances in Geomodeling for Petroleum Reservoirs held in 2018.  He was general chair for the CSPG 2011 and 2014 Gussow conferences, co-editor of the special edition December 2015 BCPG on Geomodeling Advances and the 2013 CSPG Memoir 20. Other courses taught are Fundamentals of Geostatistics, All You Need to Know about Geostatistics, Deconvolution Theory, and Introduction to Geophysics

Mr Garner is registered as a Professional Geophysicist (P.Geoph) through the Alberta’s Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists (APEGA). 

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